Guide for authors


The Nordic Journal of Rehabilitation is an online journal which provides a forum for publication of research and scholarly papers in the forms of original research, research-based and systematic reviews, critical commentaries and discussion papers which are of interest to researchers in the field of rehabilitation. The Nordic Journal of Rehabilitation is an online journal and provides a forum for original research and scholarship in the field of rehabilitation along with research methods relevant to rehabilitation professionals and other related professionals. The journal aims to promote excellence in rehabilitation by publishing original research, systematic and other reviews, evidence-based information, critical discussions and commentary together with research plans of the highest standard. 

Types of paper 

The Nordic Journal of Rehabilitation publishes original research, research-based reviews, discussion papers, research plans and proposals, editorial letters and letters to the editor. 

Reporting guidelines 

The journal supports the Equator Network ( which is an international resourcefulness seeking to enhance the reliability and the value of health-related studies by providing logical and accurate reporting of research literatures. The journal requests authors to apply appropriate reporting guidelines, while preparing their research articles, to follow excellence in scientific reporting. Please use the following guidelines to structure your article: 

CONSORT (for reporting of randomized controlled trials) 

TREND (for transparent reporting of evaluations with non-randomized designs) 

STROBE (for reporting of observational cohort, case control and cross-sectional studies) 

PRISMA (for reporting of systematic reviews) 

MOOSE (for reporting of meta-analyses of observational studies) 

COREQ (for reporting of qualitative studies) 

CHEERS (for reporting of health economic evaluations) 

SQUIRE (for reporting of Quality improvement studies) 

AGREE (for reporting of Clinical practice guidelines) 

Ethical approval issues  

All manuscripts submitted to the journalmust be conducted strongly to ethical standards in research and must consider to the local regulations and standards for finding scrutiny and approval. The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) and EC Directive 86/609/EEC must be carried out for the research tasks mentioned in your manuscript. Finnish standards by The Finnish National Board on Research Integrity are followed (

Conflict of interest 

The journalasks authors to generate any actual or potential disclosure conflict of interest statement for their manuscripts by filling ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest available at: 

Submission verification and declaration 

By submitting an article to the Nordic Journal of Rehabilitation, author implies that: 

  • the article has not been published previously, except in the form of academic thesis, working paper or as part of a published lecture. 
  • the article is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. 
  • the article submission is approved by all authors participated in the manuscript as co-author(s). 
  • the author confirms that if the manuscript accepted for publishing in the Nordic Journal of Rehabilitation, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form in English or in other languages without the written consent of the copyright-holder. 

Contributions and acknowledgements 

All authors of submitted paper should substantially contributed to the conception and design of the research article, data collecting and analysis, drafting and revising the manuscript as well as final approval of the submitted version. If the paper is accepted, the editorial office will ask about the role of every author with reference to the criteria for authorship. The corresponding author must make a clear statement that all authors have approved the final version of manuscript and confirms that all those entitled to authorship are listed as co-authors. 

Copyright and author rights 

The authors of an accepted article will be asked to give the rights related to the publication and distribution of their paper to the Nordic Journal of Rehabilitation. As the journal publishes online open access papers under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)license (, the journal permits 3rd party to reuse the published manuscripts only for non-commercial purposes. 

Funding source 

If author(s) received external funding for the conduct and preparation of research paper, the corresponding author should identify who provided financial support and describe the potential role of sponsor(s) in preparing manuscript e.g. data collection, research design etc. 

Open access 

All kinds of papers appearing in will be published open access and this means every peer-reviewed paper is freely and universally accesible in Nordic Journal of Rehabilitation via the internet in a readable format, immediately after publishing. Nordic Journal of Rehabilitation publication process is free of charge and the journal publish under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs  (CC BY-NC-ND)license for non-commercial purposes of publication. 

Language of publication 

Please provide your documents and texts in good Finnish or English or Swedish. 


For submitting all kinds of documents included original research, letter to editor etc. please send them to Nordic Journal of Rehabilitation editorial board by emailing to Mrs. Sanna Sihvonen (

Only Word documents is accepted to typeset your papers for final publication. All correspondences such as notifications and the editor’s decisions will send to the corresponded author by e-mail. 

Peer review  

Nordic Journal of Rehabilitation applies peer review process and the manuscript will be reviewed within 2-3 months. Based on reviewers’ comments and recommendations, the Editorial board is responsible for the final decision regarding to acceptance, rejection or request author(s) for revision within 3 weeks after the reviewer’s comments are available. The author(s) will be informed about the editorial decision together with reviewers’ comments and recommendations. 




All submissions must prepare the following documents: 

  • Cover letter: is a short letter to the editorial office in which you wish the editors to consider. 
  • Manuscript: include all needed parts of paper e.g. references, figures, tables etc. Please add page number to your manuscript for ease of reference during the peer reviewing process. 
  • Title pagewith author details: is the page included the title of paper, authors’ names and affiliations, postal address, phone number and e-mail address of corresponding author. 

Article structure 

Length: original research article 4000 words, review 5000-6000 words, commentary 3000 words.


Abstract should be concise and factual included less than 400 words. Depending on the type of article, it can be structured in original research (e.g. included Background; Objectives; Data; Methods; Results; and Conclusions) or unstructured in review papers. 


Keywords should be prepared to accurately identify the manuscript’s subject, purpose, focused research area, methodology from three to six keywords in alphabetical order. 

Subdivision – numbered sections 

All sections and subsections of your paper should be numbered (e.g. 1, 1.1, 1.2 1.1.1, 1.1.2… 1.2, etc.) except abstract. 


Explain the objectives and aims of your paper and adequate background, research question and the strategy of your paper. 


State the observations used in the manuscript, how, where and when they were collected and the ethical issues which considered while observing. 


Provide enough explanation of methodology used and indicate the reference(s). 


Results should be concise and understandable. 

Conclusions and Discussion 

The main results and conclusion of the paper should be presented briefly may be included significance of the results, research limitations, recommendation and suggestion for future research. 


List of those individuals who helped during the research may be added here with a short explanation. 

Formatting of funding sources 

List of funding resource maybe added before references. 


Appendixes should be numbered (if there is more than one appendix), e.g. Appendix 1, Appendix 2. etc. 

Tables and figures   

All tables and figures should be clearly labelled, and they should be placed next to relevant text in the article. Tables must be submitted as editable text in Microsoft Word Office not as images. Please use only horizontal rules and shading in table cells. Figures should be submitted in high quality and resolution. Accepted format for images are JPG and PNG. 

Reference Style 

Use the reference guide:


1      General instructions on all source types. 1

1.1   Citation. 1

One and multiple sentence references. 1

Direct quotations. 2

1.2   Bibliography. 2

How to mark DOI/URN or URL in bibliography. 2

When should I use the publication year and when the publication date?. 3

When should I use the notation “Retrieved January 1, 2020, from”?. 3

1.3   Indicating the authors (count, group authors, abbreviations) 4

When the same authors (or authors with the same surnames) have multiple sources the same year. 4

1.4   When the author, title or publication date is missing. 5

1.5   Primary sources vs. secondary sources. 5

2      Books. 5

3      Articles in books. 6

4      Articles in journals, databases, and web dictionaries. 6

5      Articles in blogs, news websites, and newspapers. 7

6      Theses/dissertations (Bachelor’s thesis, Master’s thesis, Doctoral dissertations…) 7

7      Reports, guides, instructions, recommendations, patents, brochures etc. 8

8      Sources of law: statutes (laws, acts, directives, agreements), solutions. 9

9      Standards. 9

10    Statistics, data, computer software. 9

11    Art 10

12    Other audiovisual sources (videos, pictures, presentations, podcasts, study material etc.) 10

13    Social media. 11

14    Other web pages. 11

15    Personal communication and other unofficial non-published sources. 12

16    Example of bibliographic references. 13

1        General instructions on all source types

SAMK’s reference instructions apply The American Psychological Association’s (APA) Style, 7th edition. Formatting of bibliographic references has been simplified from the APA instructions (no hanging indentation, no italics with the sources).

When giving the reference, always start by thinking carefully what kind of source you are talking about (a book, an article, instruction, ordinary web-page…). Thereafter you will be able to write the reference and bibliographic reference with the help of this guidebook and the examples concerning the source type in question. You will find more examples on APA style reference examples page. You can also apply them as long as your referencing remains consistent.

If you want to use another citation style familiar to you, discuss it with your thesis supervisor.

1.1     Citation

With the citation, the reader finds the correct source in the bibliography. The citation must be detailed enough for the reader to find easily the spot borrowed from the original source.  If the entire work is not referred to, the citation gives the spot (normally page numbers) which is referred to:

(Author, year, page)

(Doe, 2020, p. 23) or (Doe, 2020, pp. 23–25) or (Doe, 2020, pp. 23, 34–35)

If you mention the author already in the text (narrative citation), do not repeat it in brackets.

Doe’s (2020, pp. 23–25) view is based on…

If necessary, you can also refer to a certain chapter/section/paragraph (use para./paras.), if the source does not have paging (you can shorten the long titles to the first few words and enclose them in double quotes).  It is also possible to refer, for example, to a certain table/chart/diagram.

(Doe, 2020, Chapter 2) or (Doe, 2020, Section 2.4) or (Doe, 2020, paras. 2–3) or (Doe, 2020, Table 12) or (Doe, 2020, References in the thesis section) or (Doe, 2020, “The first words of a long title” section)

If you refer to multiple sources simultaneously, list the references in alphabetical order according to the author and separated from each other with a semi-colon.

(Doe, 2020, p. 12; Coe & Boe, 2019, p. 10)

One and multiple sentence references

When the reference concerns only one sentence, a full stop comes after the brackets of the reference (i.e. after the whole sentence):

The reference concerns only this sentence, and the full stop comes after the brackets (Doe, 2020, p. 10). This sentence is the author’s own thinking.

If you use the same source in multiple consecutive sentences (e.g. in the entire paragraph), put the reference in brackets as its own sentence and the full stop inside the brackets (N.B. This differs from the APA general guidelines):

Here the reference concerns this sentence and the next one.  The reference is thus inside the brackets as its own sentence, as well as the connecting full stop. (Doe, 2020, p. 10.)

You can also use narrative citation in this case. If the paragraph continues after your reference (with another reference or with your own thinking), this must be clearly indicated in the text, for example:

According to Doe (2020, p. 10) xxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx. Coe (2019, p. 15–16) instead xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx. Xxxx xxxxx xx xxxx.

According to Doe (2020, p. 10) xxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx. In my opinion xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx. Xxxx xxx xxxx.

According to Doe (2020) xxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx (p. 10). Xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx.

Direct quotations

Use quotation marks around short (less than 40 words) direct quotations:

”This is a direct quotation” (Doe, 2020, p. 10). ”This is a multi-sentence direct quotation. In this case, the last full stop must be inside the quotation marks.” (Doe, 2020, p. 10.)

Long (40 words or more) direct quotations are treated as block quotations. Indent the whole block 1 cm and do not use quotation marks:

This text is treated as a block quotation. It is indented 1 cm from the left margin, and it is not enclosed in quotation marks. If you omit a part of the quotation, use ellipses (three periods) … to indicate the omitted part. For the sake of accessibility, it is good if the reader is somehow indicated about the following direct quotation in the text preceding it. (Doe, 2020, p. 10.)

1.2     Bibliography

The bibliography (see the example at the end of this instruction) lists all the used sources in alphabetical order. In case the author information is the same for two sources, the older comes first in the bibliography. With the help of the bibliographic reference concerning each reference, the reader can find the original source on the web or in the library collections. The bibliographic reference varies slightly according to the type of the source (e.g. the year can be replaced by the exact publication date when needed) and the detailed markings should be checked from the examples of this instruction. In general, the bibliographic reference is the following:

Author. (year). Title. Where is it published. DOI/URN/URL

Slocum, S. L., & Curtis, K. R. (2018). Food and agricultural tourism: Theory and best practice. Routledge.

Lane, D. A., & Lip, G. Y. H. (2013). Treatment of hypertension in peripheral arterial disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

If the source has a subtitle in addition to the main title, separate it from the main title with a colon, e.g., “This is the main title: This is the subtitle”. The part “Where is it published” tells the name of the publisher, publication platform, database etc. If it is the same as the author, do not repeat it.

Take care of the following:

  • The bibliography includes exactly those sources to which the work refers (not a single thing more or less).
  • The citation and the bibliographic reference begin similarly (the source can be found from the bibliography with exactly the word(s) by which it is cited).

How to mark DOI/URN or URL in bibliography

In the case of web sources, the source’s identifier/address (DOI, URN, URL etc.) is added at the end of the bibliographic reference. Use full stop before it, but not after. You can add addresses as active links or plain text – but always consistently the same way. Even if you have yourself used the source in a printed form but the source has a DOI/URN identifier, you can add it to the bibliographic reference if you wish. The identifiers/addresses for the publications are recommended to be used in the following order:

  1. Primarily the DOI identifier is used and it is marked in the form.

If the publication does not have a DOI identifier, you can use the URN identifier. The publication’s details give you information on a possible URN address, e.g. in the form of in Finnish publications.


If it is a question of a web source (e.g. an ordinary web page or instruction/book/article in the net), which does not have a DOI/URN identifier, use the source’s open URL address (i.e. the normal web address You can use URL shorteners (like bitly) with complicated and more than two lines long URLs. Always check that shortened URLs function properly.

Pay attention to the following when giving the identifier/address:

  • If it is a question of a facsimile (digital copy) of a printed book/article (with pages), and it does not have a DOI/URN identifier, you can refer to it just like it was a printed version, that is without any web address.
    • Example: The book ”Sports injuries: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation” can be read through E-book central as an e-book, which is a facsimile looking like the printed version. Do not use the E-book central’s address  in the bibliography, but leave the web address out completely.
  • Do not use the addresses of general book or article databases (those which include a database name) as identifiers. General databases refer here to those collection databases which include material (books, e-books, articles) from different sources. Such databases are e.g. Finna, Ellibs, Booky, Google Books, Ebook Central, Dawsonera, Ebscohost, Medline etc.
  • If the net source (e.g. a book or an article) is not available without restrictions (and it is not a facsimile/digital copy), use the URL address of the service provider in your bibliographic entry.

When should I use the publication year and when the publication date?

With most references (books, journal articles, theses, reports etc.), publication year is used. However, use specific dates with references that are published more frequently (newspaper articles, news, social media updates, videos, study material etc.).

When should I use the notation “Retrieved January 1, 2020, from”?

In the reference list entry, use retrieval date to indicate when you have retrieved the information from the web page in the following cases:

  • if the source does not have a publication date (n.d., see Section 1.4)
  • if the content on the web page is not stable (i.e., it is updated frequently, and the updates do not have their own web address). In this case, the version of the page retrieved by the reader of your work may be different from the version you have used.

If you have used the same page on several different days, mark only the last retrieval date in the bibliographic reference.

1.3     Indicating the authors (count, group authors, abbreviations)

Always try to find an author for the source. If the source has no person as the author or the person is not expressed precisely enough (e.g. only the first name), use a group author (an institute, organization etc.). Regarding citations with more than two authors, the marking et al. is used to represent the rest of the authors.

With group authors, the entire name is preferred over an abbreviation (e.g. not SAMK but Satakunta University of Applied Sciences). However, you can use the abbreviation, if the group name is long, its abbreviation is well-known, and it needs to be repeated often in the text. You always need to introduce the abbreviation when it first appears, for example: American Psychological Association (APA, 2020, p. 268) described… The original name should also be included in the bibliographic reference after the year.

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
1 author(Doe, 2020, p. 6)Doe, J. (2020). Title etc.
2 authors(Doe & Coe, 2020, p. 6)Doe, J., & Coe, C. (2020). Title etc.
3 – 20 authors(Doe et al., 2020, p. 6)  List all authors: Doe, J., Coe, C., & Boe, b. (2020). Title etc.
more than 20 authors(Doe et al., 2020, p. 6)List authors as follows: 19 first ones normally, … Last, L. (2020). Title etc. Use ellipsis (…) before the last author.
group author(Satakunta University of Applied Sciences, 2020, p. 6)Satakunta University of Applied Sciences. (2020). Title etc.
abbreviated group author(APA, 2020, p. 268)APA. (2020). American Psychological Association. Title etc.

When the same authors (or authors with the same surnames) have multiple sources the same year

The citation must clearly identify to which source in the bibliography it refers. If the sources include multiple publications from the same authors published the same year, a small letter (a, b, c, …) is added to the year to separate the sources from each other. Alphabetically ordered by the title, the first gets the letter a, the next the letter b etc. If the author is not the same but has the same surname, the citation uses the first letters of the first name to separate the references from each other. As many first letters are included as is needed to separate the citations from each other.

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Same author, same year à citing the first(Kananen, 2018a, p. 6)  Kananen, J. (2018a). Digimarkkinointi ja sosiaalisen median markkinointi. Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulu.
Same author, same year à citing the second(Kananen, 2018b, p. 6)Kananen, J. (2018b). Strateginen sisältömarkkinointi: miten onnistun verkkosivujen ja sosiaalisen median sisällöntuotannossa? Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulu.
As above but references with exact publication date(Doe, 2021a) (Doe, 2021b)Doe, J. (2021a, March 1). Title etc. Doe, J. (2021b, September 4). Title. etc.
Same surnames(Doe, J., 2020, p. 6) (Doe, D., 2020, p. 6)Doe, J. (2020). Title. etc. Doe, D. (2020). Title. etc.
Same surnames, same first name initials(Doe, Jo., 2020, p. 6) (Doe, Ja., 2020, p. 6)Doe, Jo. (2020). Title. etc. Doe, Ja. (2020). Title. etc.

1.4     When the author, title or publication date is missing

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
no author(Title, 2020, p. 6) You can shorten the long titles in citations to the first few words and enclose them in double quotes.Title. (2020). etc. In this case, the bibliographic reference starts with the title and is alphabetized in the bibliography accordingly.
no title(Doe, 2020, p. 6)Doe, J. (2020). [Description of the source in square brackets]. etc.
no date(Doe, n.d., p. 6)Doe, J. (n.d.). Title. etc.

n.d. = no date. In case your work includes several references by the same author with no date, use n.d.-a, n.d.-b etc.

1.5     Primary sources vs. secondary sources

Always find the primary (original) source and refer to it. Only if this is impossible (e.g., the primary source is sold out and not available from library collections) you can refer to a secondary source, which refers to the primary source.

Example: You have Doe’s work in your hand, which refers to Coe’s work, and Coe’s work is no longer available anywhere. You can cite it as follows:

(Coe, 1982, as cited in Doe, 2019, p. 10)

Only the work that you have read is included in the bibliography – in this case Doe.

2        Books

This section comprises entire books (also SAMK databases’ e-books, statistical books, open net pdf-books etc.). If it is a question of something else than the first edition, the details of the edition are added in the bibliographic references in the same form as they are mentioned in the work.

Smaller individual works, such as reports, brochures, instructions etc. (often in a pdf-form as well) can be found in Chapter 6, Reports, brochures….

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Author, year, page)Author. (year). Title (edition other than first). Publisher. DOI/URN/URL
Book(Cavusgil et al., 2020, p. 91)Cavusgil, S. T., Knight, G. A., & Riesenberger, J. R. (2020). International business: The new realities (Fifth edition, global edition). Pearson.
Book with DOI/URN identifier(Jackson, 2019, p. 16)Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.
E-book with page numbers (digital copy of the print book)(Peterson & Renström, p. 12)Peterson, L., & Renström, P. (2017). Sports injuries: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation (fourth edition). CRC Press. Just like a print book.
E-book, no page numbers (or e-reader dependent page numbers)(Laakso-Manninen & Tuomi, 2020, Section 4.2)Laakso-Manninen, R., & Tuomi, L. (2020). Professional higher education management: Best practices from Finland. Professional Publishing Finland. https://www.
Audiobook(Acemoglu & Robinson, 2020, 36:12) The point referenced can be indicated by a timestamp.Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. A. (2019). The narrow corridor: States, societies, and the fate of liberty [Audiobook]. Penguin Press. Specification [Audiobook] in square brackets. The link refers to the service that gives access to this audiobook.
Edited book (reference to the whole book, or authors of the articles not indicated)(Jackson, 2018) Referencing the whole edited book.Jackson, S. D. (Ed.). (2018). Hydrogenation: Catalysts and processes. De Gruyter.
When referencing a specific article/chapter which author is indicated, reference according to Chapter 3.

3        Articles in books

This refers to articles/chapters in compiled (edited) works, also to articles in edited encyclopedias. Include the details of the book in your bibliographic reference in format “In. J. Doe (Ed.), Title of the book”. N.B. The edition number is needed in the bibliographic reference only if it is other than the first (just like in Chapter 2, Books).

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Author, year, page)Author. (year). Article title. Editor(s) and the title of the edited book (book edition and article pages pp. xx–xx in brackets). Publisher. DOI/URN/URL
Article in edited book(Allgeier & Sengupta, 2018, p. 119)Allgeier, A. M., & Sengupta, S. K. (2018). Nitrile hydrogenation. In D. S. Jackson (Ed.), Hydrogenation: Catalysts and processes (pp. 107–154). De Gruyter.
Article in edited book, several editors(Dillard, 2019, p. 122)Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.

4        Articles in journals, databases, and web dictionaries

Online encyclopedias also follow this format.

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Author, year, page)Author. (year). Article title. Name of the journal/database. In case of journal, volume(issue), pages. DOI/URN/URL In case of journals, pages in bibliographic references without pp.: not pp. 1215 but 1215.
Journal article  (Chen et al., 2019, p. 40)Chen, X., Lun, Y., Yan, J., Hao, T., & Weng, H. (2019). Discovering thematic change and evolution of utilizing social media for healthcare research. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 19(Suppl 2), 39–53.
E-journal without page numbers(Ehrler et al., 2019, Selected Functionalities section)Ehrler, F., Lovis, C., & Blondon, K. (2019). A Mobile Phone App for Bedside Nursing Care: Design and Development Using an Adapted Software Development Life Cycle Model. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 7(4).
Article in a database(Hetland et al., 2018, Results section)Hetland, B., McAndrew, N., Perazzo, J., & Hickman, R. (2018). A qualitative study of factors that influence active family involvement with patient care in the ICU: Survey of critical care nurses. PubMed Central. https://www.ncbi.
 (Lane & Lip, 2013)Lane, D. A., & Lip, G. Y. H. (2013). Treatment of hypertension in peripheral arterial disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Online dictionary/
encyclopedia entry
(American Psychological Association, n.d.)American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Tacit knowledge. APA Dictionary of Psychology. Retrieved November 12, 2021, from No publication date given – retrieval  date is needed.

5        Articles in blogs, news websites, and newspapers

Use the exact publication date in the bibliography.

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Author, year, page)Author. (date). Article/blog post title. Name of the blog/ /website/newspaper. DOI/URN/URL In this case pages in bibliographic references without pp.: not pp. 1215 but 1215.
Blog post(Ouellette, 2019)Ouellette, J. (2019, November 15). Physicists capture first footage of quantum knots unraveling in superfluid. Ars Technica.
 (Offsprout, 2019)Offsprout. (2019, May 31). MainWP Review 2019: WordPress Website Management Tool. Offsprout blog.
Article on a news website(YLE, 2020)YLE. (2020, October 28). Hacked therapy centre emailed clients’ ID numbers on invoices. YLE news. Retrieved November 2, 2020, from
Articles in a newspaper(Carey, 2019)Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times.
If you cite a printed version, provide page numbers after the newspaper title.

6        Theses/dissertations (Bachelor’s thesis, Master’s thesis, Doctoral dissertations…)

Include the type of the thesis and the name of the institution in square brackets, for example, [Master’s thesis, University of Tampere].

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Author, year, page)Author. (year). Thesis title [thesis type, the name of the university]. Possible database. DOI/URN/URL
Bachelor’s thesis(Laaksonen, 2020, p. 6)Laaksonen, V. (2020). Social interaction skills as a core of organizational well-being [Bachelor’s thesis, Satakunta University of Applied Sciences]. Theseus. http://www.urn.
Master’s thesis(Shafiq, 2019, pp. 6–7)Shafiq, O. (2019). Anomaly detection in blockchain [Master’s thesis, University of Tampere]. Trepo.
Doctoral dissertation(Zambrano-Vazquez, 2016, p. 16)Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository.

7        Reports, guides, instructions, recommendations, patents, brochures etc.

These are usually publications smaller than books. They are often pdf-files in the web but could be ordinary web pages, too. In case of small prints (brochures, fact sheets, advertisements, posters etc.), you can include a specification in square brackets, e.g., Alcohol and cancer [Brochure]. N.B. Entire books with publishers in the open web are marked according to the Chapter 2, Books.

If it is a question of a web page with changing contents over time, but with a permanent address, include retrieval date before the web address in the bibliographic reference.

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Author, year, page)Author. (year). Title. Possible publishing platform/parent organization. DOI/URN/URL
Report(Baral et al., 2019, p. 16)Baral, P., Larsen, M., & Archer, M. (2019). Does money grow on trees? Restoration financing in Southeast Asia. Atlantic Council.
Guideline(World Health Organization, 2017, Qualifying statements section)World Health Organization. (2017). Guideline: Protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding in facilities providing maternity and newborn services. Guideline Central.
Guide/instruction (pdf)(Marsi Bionics, 2017, p. 11)Marsi Bionics. (2017). Atlas 2020 exoskeleton: Technical manual.
Guide/instruction (downloaded pdf)(Schneider Electric, 2016, p. 205)Schneider Electric. (2016). VAMP 255/VAMP 230 Feeder and motor manager: User manual. Retrieved July 2, 2020 from The actual manual has no URL. The bibliographic reference URL refers to Schneider Download Center (the manual can be downloaded there).
Patent(Van Doren, 2020)Van Doren, D. (2020). Modular barrier panel and construction system (U.S. Patent US10683656).
Patent number in brackets

8        Sources of law: statutes (laws, acts, directives, agreements), solutions

This differs from the APA general guidelines. Concerning the sources of law, the year of publication is not included in a citation. The citation, as well as other sources, must be as accurate as possible (e.g. with acts you can refer to a certain spot in a certain section’s certain paragraph, if necessary). Concerning the Finnish acts, the bibliography’s URL always refers to the up-to-date act – remember to include the retrieval date.

EU sources can be found from the Official Journal of the European Union in the EUR-Lex database. Include the journal information in the bibliographic reference. You can use the journal abbreviation OJ. EU sources have an ELI identifier, and you should use it in the bibliographic reference (indicated in EUR-Lex as

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(statute/agreement/document, specifications if needed)Statute/agreement/document and its title if given. DOI/URN/URL
Act(Act on the Openness of Government Activities 621/1999, Section 2)Act on the Openness of Government Activities 621/1999. Retrieved October 18, 2020, from
EU sources(Directive 2012/27/EU, p. 12) pdf or   (Directive 2012/27/EU, article 12) web page without numbers  Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC Text with EEA relevance. OJ L 315, 14.11.2012, p. 1–56. http://data.

9        Standards

This differs from the APA general guidelines. In SAMK, it is recommended to refer to standards by their number as follows:

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Standard number, year, page)Standard number. (year). Title. Publisher. DOI/URN/URL
ISO standard(ISO 45001:2018, 2018)ISO 45001. (2018). Occupational health and safety management systems: Requirements with guidance for use. International Organization for Standardization.
SFS standard(SFS 5900:en, 2016, p. 9)SFS 5900:en. (2016). Fire precaution of hot works. Finnish Standards Association.

10   Statistics, data, computer software

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Author, year)Author. (year). Title [Specification]. Possible publisher/source/platform. DOI/URN/URL
Statistics(Statistics Finland, 2020)Statistics Finland. (2020). Foreign citizens [Statistics].
 (Eurostat, 2020)Eurostat. (2020). Healthy life years at birth by sex [Statistics].
Statistics compiled from source data (StatFin etc.)(Statistics Finland, 2020)Statistics Finland. (2020). Establishments of enterprises by industry and size category of personnel by Industry (TOL 2008), Year, Staff size and Information [Statistics]. StatFin.   
Data set(Nummenmaa et al., 2018)Nummenmaa, L., Hari, R., Hietanen, J. K., & Glerean, E. (2018). Maps of subjective feelings [Data set]. Zenodo.
Computer software(Borenstein et al., 2014)Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2014). Comprehensive meta-analysis (version 3.3.070) [Computer software]. Biostat.
Mobile app(Lexicomp, 2019)Lexicomp. (2019). Lexicomp (Version 5.6.2) [Mobile app]. Google Play.

11   Art

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Artist/curator/gallery, year)Artist/curator/gallery. (year). Title [Specification]. Possible publisher/location. DOI/URN/URL
Artwork(van Gogh, 1889)van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, United States.
Exhibition(Behlen, 2019–2020)Behlen, B. (2019–2020). The Clash: London Calling [Exhibition]. Museum of London.

12   Other audiovisual sources (videos, pictures, presentations, podcasts, study material etc.)

This refers to such audiovisual sources where the publication/creation date is important (the publication year is sufficient if the publication date is not known). A corresponding principle refers to music, television programmes, online courses, memos etc. If, for example, lecture material is in a closed learning environment, give only the public network’s URL, to which stage everyone has access (e.g. the log-in page of the material at SAMK Moodle). In the bibliography, [Source type] is provided after the title. It can be [Video], [Lecture recording] etc.

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Author, year)Author. (date). Title [Source type]. Possible publisher/publication platform. DOI/URN/URL
Video(Harvard University, 2019)Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft Robotic Gripper for Jellyfish [Video]. YouTube.
 (Kahle, 2019)Kahle, L.R. (2019, September 26). The means-end chain in consumer decision making: The case of Porsche [Video]. Henry Stewart Talks.
Podcast(Hannah-Jones, 2019, 10:10) You can use timestamp to indicate the referenced spot.Hannah-Jones, N. (Host). (2019, September 13). How the bad blood started (No. 4) [Audio podcast episode]. In 1619. The New York Times.
Photograph(Denali National Park and Preserve, 2013)Denali National Park and Preserve. (2013, January 22). Lava [Photograph]. Flickr.
Conference presentation or abstract N.B. In case of journal or book articles, see Chapter 3 or 4.(Evans et al., 2019)Evans, A. C., Jr., Garbarino, J., Bocanegra, E., Kinscherff, R. T., & Márquez-Greene, N. (2019, August 8–11). Gun violence: An event on the power of community [Conference presentation]. APA 2019 Convention, Chicago, IL, United States. In case of abstract, use [Conference presentation abstract]
Slides and other lecture notes(Leist, 2014)Leist, E. (2014, April 17). 40 Tools in 20 Minutes: Hacking your Marketing Career [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.
 (Satakunta University of Applied Sciences Library, 2021)Satakunta University of Applied Sciences Library. (2021, October 11). Information retrieval [PowerPoint slides]. SAMK Moodle.

13   Social media

If it is a question of an updating page (e.g., the front page of Facebook/LinkedIn/Instagram profiles), provide the retrieval date. In case of status update with its own web address, the retrieval date is not needed. You can use the first paragraph as the title for the update. If it is more than 20 words, use only the first 20 words. Add [Source type] after the title. It can be [Status update], [Video], [Tweet] etc.

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Author tai pageston nimi, year)Author or page title. (date). Update/page title. [Source type]. Platform. URL (or Retrieved…)
LinkedIn update
(News From Science, 2019)News from Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system – and beyond? [Status update]. Facebook.
Twitter-/Instagram-/TikTok update(Tampere University, 2020)Tampere University [@TampereUni]. (2020, September 1). On Monday 7 September we’ll celebrate the opening of the academic year @TampereUni, this time online! Tampere Academic Symphony Orchestra [Tweet]. Twitter.
LinkedIn page
(News From Science, n.d.)News from Science. (n.d.). Front page [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from

14   Other web pages

This refers to web pages which are not included in the previous categories. These include, for example, different types of homepages (company, personal, product etc.) but also various other web pages (frequently updated instruction pages etc.).

Always refer accurately, to a single web page, not the entire web site. The author of the web page is either a person or a community (university, town/city, company etc.). Use the time of the latest update as the publication date in the bibliography (use year if date is not indicated). If you cannot find the latest update, use n.d. (no date), and provide the retrieval date.

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Author, year)Author. (date or year). Title. Possible platform or publisher etc. URL
Other web page(KVM contributors, 2015, Windows Family section)KVM contributors. (2015, August 28). Guest Support Status.
 (Satakunta University of Applied Sciences, 2021)Satakunta University of Applied Sciences. (2021, October 22). SAMK’s internal instructions on coronavirus situation.
 (Greek National Tourism Organisation, 2020)Greek National Tourism Organisation. (n.d.). Chania. Retrieved October 22, 2021, from https://www.visitgreece.
 (Bellenca, 1998)Bellenca, P. (1998). Ending the Essay: Conclusions. Harvard College Writing Center. https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.
Generated web page (e.g., Google Map)(Google, n.d.)Google. (n.d.). [Google maps directions from SAMK Rauma campus to Kivikylä Arena]. Retrieverd June 29, 2020, from The page has no title à therefore, [title in square brackets]; nor has it publication time, but is always regenerated according to geographic information à therefore, n.d.

15   Personal communication and other unofficial non-published sources

This differs from the APA general guidelines, which do not include personal communications in the bibliography. In SAMK, they are included. These are conversations, e-mails, interviews etc. N.B. The research material you are analyzing is not included as a source.

TypeCitationBibliographic reference
Generally(Communicator, year)Doe, J. (date). Type of communication.
Conversation(Martiskainen, 2019)Martiskainen, J. (2019, December 23). Personal conversation with Professor Jakke Martiskainen.
E-mail(Martiskainen, 2019)Martiskainen, J. (2019, December 23). Professor Jakke Martiskainen’s E-mail to SAMK staff.
Interview(Martiskainen, 2019)Martiskainen, J. (2019, December 23). Phone interview with Professor Jakke Martiskainen.

16   Example of bibliographic references

N.B. Alphabetical order of the works by Kananen.

Allgeier, A. M., & Sengupta, S. K. (2018). Nitrile hydrogenation. In D. S. Jackson (Ed.), Hydrogenation: Catalysts and processes (pp. 107–154). De Gruyter.

Behlen, B. (2019–2020). The Clash: London Calling [Exhibition]. Museum of London.

Chen, X., Lun, Y., Yan, J., Hao, T., & Weng, H. (2019). Discovering thematic change and evolution of utilizing social media for healthcare research. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 19(Suppl 2), 39–53.

Greek National Tourism Organisation. (2020). Visit Greece: Chania. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from

Kananen, J. (2015). Online research for preparing your thesis: A guide for conducting qualitative and quantitative research online. JAMK University of Applied Sciences.

Kananen, J. (2018a). Digimarkkinointi ja sosiaalisen median markkinointi. JAMK University of Applied Sciences. 

Kananen, J. (2018b). Strateginen sisältömarkkinointi: miten onnistun verkkosivujen ja sosiaalisen median sisällöntuotannossa? JAMK University of Applied Sciences.

Kananen, J., Hämäläinen, B., & Malinen, J. (2008). Keski-Suomesta vientimarkkinoille: Pk-yritysten vientiin liittyvät vaikeudet. JAMK University of Applied Sciences.

Nummenmaa, L. (2006). Orienting of social attention [Doctoral dissertation, University of Turku].

Nummenmaa, L., Hari, R., Hietanen, J. K., & Glerean, E. (2018). Maps of subjective feelings [Data set]. Zenodo.

Ouellette, J. (2019, November 15). Physicists capture first footage of quantum knots unraveling in superfluid. Ars Technica.

Shafiq, O. (2019). Anomaly detection in blockchain. [Master’s thesis, University of Tampere]. Trepo.

Tampere University [@TampereUni]. (2020, September 1). On Monday 7 September we’ll celebrate the opening of the academic year @TampereUni, this time online! Tampere Academic Symphony Orchestra [Tweet]. Twitter.